The problem of establishing a theoretical groundwork for experimentally-found correlations between ultrasonic and fracture toughness factors in polycrystalline metals is discussed. It is noted that the link between these material properties and ultrasonic factors are the microstructural parameters that interact with stress wave propagation during deformation and fracture. The dynamic response of material inhomogeneities and the strains and displacements they undergo under incident stress waves are considered. Dynamic strains and displacements inside and outside scatterers are treated. The underlying approach, the formulation and governing equations for the eigenstrains, and the determination of the energy due to the presence of inhomogeneities are presented. The stress wave interaction problem is presented in terms of the dynamic eigenstrain concept.